Court dimensions: The court is rectangular with 6.10 m in width and 11.88 m in length. No obstacles should be in the 2 meter space around the court and the 6 meter space above the ground.
Boundary lines: The boundary lines must be clearly drawn. The width of them is 4 cm and are included in the area of the court. The two long lines are called "Sidelines", and the two short lines are called "End lines". The line connecting the middle points of the two sidelines is called the "Centerline" which divides the court into two equal halves. On each side of the center line a restricting line is drawn parallel to it. The restricting line is included in the restricted area. The distance between the center line and the restricting line is 2 m.
Serving area: Stretching outside of the court, a short vertical line of 20 cm is drawn on each side of the middle point of each endline at a distance of one meter from the middle point. The two short lines are called serving area lines which are not included in the serving area. The area formed by the two serving area lines and their endless extension lines is called the serving area.
The specifications of the net: he net is 7 m in length and 76 cm in width with holes of 2 cm in square. On the top of the net two layers of white cloth are sewed and a cord goes through the layers. The net is hung between two poles vertically over the center line of the court. The color of the net should be dark green. The two poles should be installed outside the sidelines with a distance of 50 cm.
Height of the net: The distance between the middle point of the top of the net and the ground is 1.60 m for men and 1.50 for women. The vertical height of the two ends of the net should be equal. The difference in height between the middle point of the net and either end should be less than 2 cm.
Mark tape and antenna: A white tape of 76 cm long and 4 cm wide should be tied on each end of the net vertically above the point where the middle line connects with the sideline. This white tape is called the mark tape. Closely connected with the outer side of each tape a flexible post of 1.2 m long with the diameter of 1 cm should be tied on the net. This post is called the antenna, which is made of glass fiber or similar material. The two posts should be 44 cm higher than the top edge of the net and on them squares of 10 cm are painted with bright contrasting colors.
The ball of shuttlecock is made up of two parts: the feather top and the rubber base. Four colored goose feathers in the form of a cross are installed into the pipe on the base. The rubber base is made of three parts: the upper base, the lower base and the pipe for feathers. All of them are made of rubber. The pipe is connected with the lower base, and the upper base cases the pipe on the top. Three washers made of hard and thin leather or similar material are between the upper and the lower base. The rubber base is 1.30 - 1.50 cm in thickness with the diameter of 3.84 - 4.00 cm. The height of the pipe for the feathers is 2.50 cm. The height of the shuttlecock is 13 - 15 cm and the weight of it is 13 - 15 g.
Shuttlecock is played in singles (one player on one side), doubles (two players) and teams. A team consists of maximum of six players. Three of them are in play and the rest are substitute players. One of the players is appointed as captain. The captain should be easily identified by a mark on the left arm. Every team is required to register the names and the numbers of the players (including the substitutes) on the scorecard before the match. Those who are not registered should not take part in the match. In singles and doubles there are one and two players, respectively, and there are no substitute players. The coach and the substitutes are required to take the seats appointed.
Players of both sides should stand in their own area. The two players close to the net from left to right are called player no. 3 and player no. 2. The one close to the end line is player no. 1. The positions should remain the same as the rotation order registered.
Positions when serving: Player no. 2 and player no. 3 should be in the front of the server when serving and the distance between them should be no less than 2 m. After serving, the players of both sides can change their positions freely in their own court.
The receiving team should stand at their positions when the ball is served.
The rotation order in the court should not be adjusted until the completion
of each game.
In doubles the position of the players is free.
When the ball is out of play, the coach or the captain has the right to ask for a time out or a substitution. During time out, the coach is allowed to give directions or instructions outside the court but should not enter the court. During play the captain in the court has the right to question the referee or ask for an explanation, but he/she should obey the referee's final decision.
Players should wear unified sports suit and shoes or the kind of shoes specially made for shuttlecock. The numbers at the front and the back of the player's shirt should be clear and of the same color which should be in contrast to the color of the shirt. The numbers should be easily identified and the stroke of them should be no less than 2 cm in width. The height of the number at the back should be at least 20 cm, and that at the front 10 cm. A number may not be repeated in the same team. Players may not wear anything which might be dangerous to other players.
The team that first wins two sets wins the match. Both teams take part in choosing the court or the service before the match starts. After the first game they change sides and service. Before the final set the referee calls the captain of each side to choose the court and the service. During the final set when the first team scores 11 points the two teams should change their sides. No instructions from outside should be given and no change of rotation positions should be allowed. After the positions are checked by the scorekeeper, the team having the turn serves. If this change of the court is not made in time, it should be done at once as soon as the referee or the captain discovers it. The score remains the same.
When the ball is out of play the coach or the captain may ask the referee for a time out. During time out the coach is allowed to give instructions from sidelines but the players in the court should not leave the court or speak with anyone outside the court. People outside the court should not enter the court. During each game each team is allowed to ask for time out twice and each time out is limited to 30 seconds. If one team asks for a third time out during one game, it should be judged losing the right of service and one point credited to the opponent.
When the ball is out of play, the coach or the captain may ask the referee for a substitution. During the substitution people outside the court should not give any instructions or advice to the players in the court and the players on the court should not leave the court either. Only three substitutions are allowed for each team during one game. In doubles or singles no substitution is allowed. The substitute should be ready at the score desk before entering the court, and the substitution should be finished within 15 seconds; otherwise the team should be judged a time out. If the team already had time out twice in the game, the team should be judged losing the right of service and one point credited to the opponent. When the coach or the captain asks for a substitution, he/she should report to the referee the number of the player leaving the court and that of the substitute. If a player is disqualified for any reason, he/she cannot continue to play and should be substituted. If the team has already had three substitutions in a game or there is no substitutes outside the court the team should be judged losing the game.
Between the end of one set and the beginning of the next set, there may be an interval of few minutes for both teams to change sides, make substitutions and for the scorekeeper to register the players' numbers. The coaches of both teams can give instructions from outside the court providing they do not interrupt the work mentioned above.
Serving: he serving player should stand in his/her own serving area, hold the ball in his/her palm, toss it up and begin the play by kicking the ball into the opponent's area. He/she should not enter the court until the ball is served. When serving, players no. 2 and no. 3 should not do any screen work, otherwise the opponent team takes the right of service and is credited one point.
Service fault: Any of the following situations is considered as a service fault:
The serving player steps on the end line, the serving area line or its extension.
1. The ball fails to cross over the net or touches the net or the antennae.
2. The ball passes under the net.
3. The ball crosses the net along the path outside the antenna, and its extension.
4. The ball touches any foreign object or player of the serving team before it enters the opponents court.
5. The ball flies out of bounds.
6. The serving is delayed more than 5 seconds.
7. The ball drops on the ground after the referee blows the whistle.
When the serving team makes a fault, it loses the right of service and the opponent serves.
Service let: If any of the following situations occurs, it will be a service let:
1. The ball is hung on the net during play except if it happens at the last
2. The feather and the rubber base part from each other or the shuttlecock breaks otherwise during flight in play.
3. Service is made before the referee's whistle.
4. A foreign object or other person enters the court during play.
Service out of turn: If the referee discovers a service out of turn after the ball is served, he/she should judge the serving team losing the right of service and to resume the correct positions and a point to the opponent team. If the team has scored, he/she should cancel the score because of the service out of turn.
If a team takes the right of serving, the players should rotate clockwise to the next positions, then the player in the position no. 1 serves.
Before the beginning of the each game a team may change the rotation order, fill the position card and hand it to the scorekeeper.
Each player may hit the ball twice continually. The one or two touches in a row by one person is called a "person-time".
A team may hit the ball no more than four times by no more than three person-times. In singles two hits is allowed.
Touching the ball with arm or hand is forbidden.
The ball should not be obviously halted at any part of the player's body.
Any movement against any section in Rule No. 14 should be judged a fault and one point credited to the opponent and the opponent team takes service.
It is a fault if the ball touches the antennae during play, but it is not a fault if it touches the net between the two antennae.
It is a fault if any part of the player's body touches the net between the two antennae.
After hitting the ball, touching the antennae, the net outside the two antennae, the net posts, the cord or any other objects should not be considered a fault.
It is a fault if any part of a player's body crosses over the net.
No part of the player's body should enter the space of the opponent court during the play.
If a player attacks the ball with his/her head, he/she should begin the attack behind the restricting line and is allowed to land inside the restricted area.
During play no part of the player's body, except the feet is allowed to contact the center line and the feet should not cross it completely.
It is out of play when the ball touches the ground or a fault occurs.
Interruption of play:
The referee should whistle a stop when one of the following situations occurs:
1. Other objects or people enter the playing area.
2. Damaged facilities are replaced.
3. An accident happens to a player.
When a team makes a fault, the opponent team should be credited with one point. A team wins the set when it scores 21 points and has at least the advantage of 2 points over the opponent team: if the score is 20:20, the competition should continue until one team wins the set with 2 points advantage. The team that wins a point gets the right of service except if the score is 20:20. After this the teams serve by turns the team that was receiving at 20:20 having the next service.
The referee's judgment is the final decision during the match.
Only the captain may request an explanation about the penalty given and the referee should reply immediately.
The team who is not satisfied with the referee's decision and is going to make an appeal should obey the referee during play. They may submit the appeal in written form to the board of referees after the match. The referee should also submit a report to the board.
The officials are made up of one referee, one umpire, one scorekeeper, one scorer and two linesmen.
The referee is on the referee's stand at one end of the net. His horizontal sight should be 45 cm to 50 cm above the top of the net.
The umpire stands on the other end of the net outside the court, facing the referee.
The scorekeeper sits at the score table opposite the referee.
The scorer sits next to the scorekeeper at the score table.
The two linesmen stand separately at the two opposite corners of the court, one meter apart from the court and each takes responsibility of two lines (one sideline and one end line) and one serving area.
Section 1: Referee
The referee is in charge of official work during the match and his judgment is the final decision. He has the right to solve any problem which might occur during play including those stated in the rules. He also has the right to change a decision made by other officials if he considers it to be wrong.
The referee has the right to interrupt or resume the game.
The referee should give a definite hand signal to show the reason for him to whistle an out of play and the team to serve.
The referee should warn or disqualify the player who commits the following faults:
1. Misconduct towards the referee;
2. Misconduct towards the opponents or the teammates;
3. Kicking, beating or hitting the opponent, or trying to do so;
4. Leaving the court during interruptions of the game without the permission of the referee.
The referee should disqualify the player who repeats the fault or commits any of the above faults after a warning is given.
The referee checks the court, equipment, facilities, the shuttlecock and players' sports suits before the match.
The referee calls the captains of both sides to toss the coin and choose the playing area or service.
The referee arranges the time for warming up for both teams.
Section 2: Umpire
The umpire should assist the referee initiatively and take over his place when the referee is unable to continue his work. The umpire should check the players' positions in the court and those in the decisive game after changing sides. When the match is out of play, the umpire should take the coach's or the captain's request for a time out or a substitution, and he/she has the command of the rules of the time out and the substitution.
The umpire should decide whether the player crosses the middle line and
violate the rule of the restricting line. The umpire should decide whether the
ball touches the net or the antenna by the umpire side, or flies over the net by
the outside of antenna and its extension.
Section 3: Scorekeeper
The scorekeeper should register the players' names and numbers on the scorecard, and ask the captain and the coach to sign it before the match. The scorekeeper should register the numbers and the rotation order of the players in court before each game. The team on the left side of the scorekeeper should be registered on the left of the scorecard and vice versa. The scorekeeper should register the score, the number of the time outs, the substitutions and faults in the rotation order during the play and inform the umpire in time.
The scorekeeper should report the number of the time outs of the team when the team requests a time out. The scorekeeper should announce changing sides when a game ends and when one team has scored 11 points in the decisive game. The scorekeeper should report to the referee if a team requests for a time out or a substitution when the game is out of play. The scorekeeper should ask the referee, the umpire and the captain of each team to sign the scorecard after the match.
Section 4: Scorer
The scorer is responsible for displaying the scores of both teams during play.
Section 5: Linesmen
The linesmen should decide whether the ball is out of bounds.
The linesmen should decide whether the ball is out of bounds after touching a player.
The linesmen should decide whether the ball crosses the net by the outside of antenna and its extension line.
The linesmen should decide whether the server steps on the end line, the serving line and its extended line.
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